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Resolution: how light escapes from the dark age of the universe

Release time:2018-03-20

According to foreign media, about 500 million years after the big bang, how did the light get out of the dark age of the Dark Universe? At present, the latest research of scientists may reveal one of the oldest mysteries in the universe, and the heroine in this story is the "astronomical villain" -- black hole that everyone likes.

The picture is a supermassive black hole artist, it is falling into the vortex disk of material which is surrounded by a purple black hole above the photosphere, this phenomenon involves high energy particles can produce X rays, it is purple ball inward gathering will become more bright, then ejected from the black hole.



The earliest stars and the re ionizing epoch in the universe.

The story began in a fraction of a second after the big bang, when the universe was expanding exponentially. In about 400 thousand years, the universe quickly cooled into a cosmic soup made of basic particles and formed a dense hydrogen gas. This is the beginning of the so-called "dark age of the universe", in which the universe was shrouded in darkness.

Any light released by stars and galaxies in the early stage is almost immediately absorbed by dense neutral hydrogen mediums, but somehow the intergalactic medium becomes warm and ionized from cold and neutral state.

Cosmologists believe that early stars and galaxies generate enough intense ultraviolet light to burn dense hydrogen, which triggers the era of re ionization, making the wonders of the universe full of light, as we observe now. The scientists did not have a good understanding of the process of how it happened, because the other theory suggests that the ultraviolet radiation intensity of stars and galaxies lack dark ages by neutral hydrogen release.

But a recent study based on recent observations by the Chandra X - ray observatory may provide important clues. The study was published in the newly published monthly journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. Although black holes are known for phagocytosis of the surrounding light and material, some black holes are considered to be ejecting high energy X - ray particles.

Philip Carette, Philip Kaaret, said that when matter falls into a black hole, it will start to spin, and spin rapidly will push a part of matter out of the black hole. The strong winds they produce can open a "escape channel" of ultraviolet light, which may occur at the early stage of the galaxy.

Carette and his team studied the Chandra observations of the Tol 1247-232 galaxy, which is 600 million light-years away from the earth. It is one of the 3 nearest galaxies that escape from ultraviolet light. In May 2016, the Chandra Observatory observed a single X ray source from the Tol 1247-232 galaxy, whose brightness had a profit and loss change. Carette and his colleagues believe that the X - ray source does not become a star.

Carette said: "stars will not change brightness. Our sun is a good example. In order to achieve brightness change, it must be a smaller object, which is reduced to a black hole." The flow of X - ray material ejected from a black hole seems to erupt from a hole in a nearby gas medium, allowing the ultraviolet to escape.

He also points out that it is likely that black holes are making wind, helping the stars to escape from ionizing radiation, so that the black hole may make the universe more transparent. When the gravitational pull matter faces the inside of the black hole, the black hole rotates faster, accompanied by the gravitational pull of the black hole, which will generate energy.

The research group pointed out that in the Tol 1247-232 galaxy, the X rays from the early universe erupted with sufficient heat and energy to blow away neutral gases and dust, and the "ultraviolet radiation" leaked out. Carette explained in an e-mail, that many early galaxies in the universe have super stars. These stars evolve very fast and form black holes after death. The material around the black hole is very hot (up to millions of Kelvin), and can form X ray. In this latest research, ultraviolet rays come from the hot stars, and the temperature is as high as 1000-100000 Kelvin.

Although black holes are likely to have such a mechanism, the research team hopes to reduce the types of black holes. Meanwhile, they say there are other possibilities to explain their observations. The researchers pointed out in the report, another possibility is the source of X ray jet from a very bright (ULX) or super bright (HLX) X ray source, ULXs is believed to contain X ray stellar mass black holes or neutron star binaries, HLXs is considered to be quasars or intermediate mass black hole.

They said that using the Chandra X Ray Observatory repeatedly filming the Tol 1247-232 Galaxy image can reveal whether X ray injection originates from single source or multiple sources. In addition, the team began to observe another similar galaxy, Haro 11, and indicated that it was impossible to obtain strong evidence from two instances of celestial bodies. At present, they want to observe more galaxies for further verification.